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History of Turkish Coffee
Today, coffee has different names, varieties, and cultures all over the world. However, Turkish coffee is different from all of them with its drawing, cooking, and presentation; a long and enjoyable ceremony.
Turkish Coffee, as it is known and spread throughout the world, is an integral part of the cultural past and social history for Turks. The coffee, which the Ottoman Empire met mainly in the 16th century, became an important part of social life in time, found a place in friendly assemblies, played a leading role in the hosting of guests, and turned into one of the important images of literary life.
It is one of the most beautiful and special habits of traditional Turkish culture. No taste can replace it after the meal. It is a break to breathe, a pleasant occasion for pleasant conversations, a taste that will relieve the stomach after a heavy meal. It is stimulating, enjoyable, and delicious. Rather than a hot drink, which is our gift to the world, it is a culture that is embedded in our customs and traditions. That is our five-century habit; It is our Turkish coffee.
Origins of Turkish Coffee
There are several stories about the arrival of coffee in the Ottoman Empire. According to the first, it was brought to Istanbul in 1554 by two Syrian entrepreneurs (Hukm from Aleppo and Shams from Damascus). According to the other story, Özdemir Pasha, who was the Governor of Yemen of Suleiman the Magnificent in 1517, brought the coffee he admired to Istanbul. Thus, Yemen Governor Özdemir Pasha was carrying the coffee he brought from Yemen to the palace. Turkish coffee is carefully served to the Sultan in the magnificent halls of the palace by the 40-person coffee shop masters. Coffee cooking lessons begin towards concubines in the Harem. Fernand Braudel claims that coffee was first used in the Ottoman Empire in 1511. Peçevî İbrahim Efendi writes that coffee entered Istanbul for the first time in 1555 and that before this date, coffee and coffee houses were unknown in Rumelia. As mentioned in Peçevî and Ali Mustafa Efendi from Gelibol; A dude from Aleppo called the referee (doctor) and an elegant Şems named Şamli came to Istanbul and started renting a large shop in Tahtakale, selling coffee and running a coffee house. In another text dated 1551 AD; It is seen that the term Year 959 is used as local entertainment.
Katip Çelebi (1609-1657), on the other hand, notes that in 1543, coffee arrived in Istanbul by ships and the people of Istanbul met with Turkish coffee. Originally from Yemen, it spread like tobacco around the world. Some sheiks used to dwell in the mountains of Yemen, find a kind of nut tree with their dervishes, beat them with hearts and kernels, and some would roast them and drink their water. The people of Yemen saw each other and used it by sheiks and Sufis and others, as it was cold and dry food suitable for riyazat and sulq and suitable for curbing lust.
Some researchers who claim that coffee in Anatolia was known even in the 13th century, claim that in the Divan-ı Kebir of Mevlana (d.1273) mentioned about the coffee. Medieval Arabic lexicographers, on the other hand, agree that the word kahwah means "some kind of wine."
Although the information about time, place and source is not certain; We can say that after leaving Yemen, the coffee arrived in Jeddah, then to Suez and Egypt, and from there to other Ottoman cities such as Izmir, Thessaloniki, Payas, Jaffa, Akka, Tripoli, Sidon and Antalya by ships. While traveling a long way with ships, the coffee, which is placed inside the grounds, wrapped with a ferde and covered with sackcloth, is brought to the capital, protected from dampness with a great effort.
According to the Turkish Coffee Culture and Research Association; The beans of the coffee fruit, a plant originating from Northeast Africa (today's Abyssinia), are roasted in the Arabian Peninsula starting from Yemen in the 15th century and turned into a hot drink. Approaching the middle of the 16th century, this refreshing, invigorating beverage became widespread in Egypt and Arabian geography. Although it is rumored that Yemen Conqueror Özdemir Pasha brought some coffee to Istanbul when his return, we can date that the first coffeehouse in Istanbul was opened in Tahtakale (today's Eminönü) in 1554. Coffee separates from Arabic practices in Istanbul and turns into today's Turkish Coffee with the degree of roasting, cooking, and serving. After the Turkish Coffee takes its final version in Istanbul, it is spread to European countries like Venice in 1615, Marseille in 1644, London in 1654, Paris in 1669, II. After the siege of Vienna, Vienna will meet in 1683, coffee will continue its journey after Europe in the 18th century with the West Indies, South America, and Asia.
Thanks to the brand new brewing method found by the Turks, coffee was cooked in ‘cezve’ and pots and named Turkish Coffee. The first coffee shop opened in Tahtakale in 1554 and spread rapidly to the whole city. Coffeehouses and coffee culture, where books and beautiful writings were read at all hours of the day, chess and backgammon were played, poetry and literary conversations were held, and coffee culture left their mark on the social life of the period. According to Peçevî (1574-1650), people who come to coffeehouses are generally literate, they read and write books in coffeehouses or discuss the ghazals they read.
With the emergence of coffeehouses in Ottoman society, the cultural and social structure of the Ottoman Empire is affected and changed over time. The coffeehouses were often banned in the 16th and 17th centuries, because of they cannot be under the control of the political and religious authority. Coffeehouses, which have become a place where Muslims and dignitaries of the period frequently come and go, are increasingly perceived as a place where gossip that provokes the public is produced, dissatisfaction is spoken, expressed, or directed. Even if people live in different places and have different social statuses, in coffeehouses they were coming together in the same place and talking about the same issues. While the first ban came in the period of Murat III, the heaviest versions came during the period of Murat IV.
Cups join and accompany the journey of Turkish Coffee. The first cups in Anatolia were made of wood. Later, coffee cups were produced from all over the world for the Ottomans to be made of porcelain and brought to the Ottoman Empire. In the beginning, it was roasted in a wood fire on a pan until it was charred and ground in hand mills.
Cups were produced and accompanied the journey of Turkish Coffee. The first cups in Anatolia were made of wood. Later, coffee cups were produced from all over the world to be made of porcelain and brought to the Ottoman Empire.
The Ottoman Dynasty was also addicted to Turkish Coffee. In the palace, there was a team for coffee which included 40 coffee-master people. They prepared Turkish Coffees for the Sultan and his guests. The coffee presentation was made with 4 people in the Palace. The coffee master was front of the line with a towel, one behind him carrying empty cups and water glass on the tray, then one behind him a coffee shop carrying the jar with his left hand, and finally another with an empty tray. The coffee was brewed without sugar and served with a glass of water and Turkish delight.
In the palace Harem, women were taken to coffee brewing lessons. It was detailed to prepare a complete good coffee. The coffee, taken as green beans, was roasted on pans, poured into wooden cooling containers, pounded with hand mills or a mortar, then brewed in charcoal or wood fire. Turkish coffee, which comes today as a plain, medium, and sweet, had around 40 brewing types in the past.
In 1871, Kuru Kahveci Mehmet Efendi roasted, grind, and sold for the first time. It has been serving in Tahmis Street in Istanbul for more than 130 years.
How coffee is first discovered?
The widely accepted theory about the discovery of coffee is based on a shepherd named Kaldi who stayed in Ethiopia. It is believed that Kaldi, who grazed his goats, notices some more energetic information than others and follows the goats. Seeing that the energetic goats eat the fruits of a tree, the shepherd collects fruits and takes them to the monastery. Preparing a drink using fruits, the abbot realizes that the drink energizes the watching, and coffee is used in the monastery for long leg rituals. Thanks to this, the fame of the magic drink spread to the Arabian peninsula and became common in Europe in the 17th century.
What are the most coffee producer countries in the world?
The answer to the question of where to grow coffee has undergone great changes over time. Coffee, which was found in Ethiopia and remained limited in this region until the 16th century, is now intensely grown in South America.
Coffee grown in tropical climates has two different types of plants. Coffee Arabica is the most consumed type of coffee due to its medium size. The other type is called Coffee Robusta.
The world's most important coffee producers are located around the equator, where the tropical climate prevails. The first 10 coffee producer countries are Mexico, Guatemala, Uganda, India, Honduran, Ethiopia, Indonesia, Columbia, Vietnam, and Brazil.
What are the differences between Turkish Coffee and other coffee types?
Turkish coffee is an extra finely ground coffee type among coffee grinding options. It is much thinner than the coffee used in espresso and can be used in a coffee pot or Turkish coffee machine.
First of all, it is very important that coffee beans are ground homogeneously without being large or small. Another issue to be considered about coffee beans grinding is that the coffee beans are ground in accordance with the coffee brewing method. For example, you will need thick coffee beans for a french press. If you use the ground coffee beans for Turkish coffee or slightly thicker espresso in the french press method, it may affect the taste of the coffee, and even the fine coffee particles leaking from the french press filter may distort the pure appearance of your coffee.
To understand the size of coffee beans according to the brewing equipment, you can use Turkish coffee as a basis. Turkish coffee is in the finest ground coffee category and is defined as powder consistency in the list below.
- Turkish coffee: powder consistency
- Espresso: Very fine
- Moka Pot: Fine
- Hario V60: Medium
- Paper Filter: Medium
- Metal Filter: Medium
- Syphon: Huge
- Chemex: Huge
- French Press: Huge
- Cold Brew: Huge
The Culture of Turkish Coffee
Turkish Coffee and Turkey
Turkish Coffee and Tradition was accepted into the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. The nomination file for Turkish Coffee and Tradition was delivered to the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in March 2013 by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism and has been accepted today.
At the 8th Meeting of the Intangible Cultural Heritage Intergovernmental Committee held in Baku and attended by approximately 800 delegates from 103 countries, 31 files nominated for the Representative List of Humanity's Intangible Cultural Heritage were examined. The nomination dossier for Turkish Coffee and Tradition was accepted at the session this morning. Serious steps will now be taken by UNESCO to protect the traditions and social practices shaped around the Turkish coffee culture.
Fortune Telling and Turkish Coffee story
Reading coffee grounds is as old as the history of coffee. Turkish Coffee fortune-telling, born with Turkish Coffee, is an integral part of coffee pleasure and conversation.
This ritual, which the Turks presented to Europe at the end of the 17th century, became very fashionable first in Paris, then in Austria, Hungary, and Germany.
After the Turkish coffees are drunk, the coffee cup is closed on the plate. The person whose fortune will be looked for says "Anyway, let it be my fortune". The person looking at the fortune interprets the fortune according to the shapes of the grounds after the cup cools down. This is usually done in order to give good news to the person whose fortune-telling is being read and to make them look forward with hope.
The shapes that the grounds leave on the coffee cup and saucer have various meanings. It is a social tradition and generally women get together and after drinking coffees, they look at each other's coffee cups.
What is the best type of glass for serving Turkish Cofee?
Although the types and sizes of coffee cups are different from each other, there may be points where some cups are similar. At this point, the two most confused cups are espresso cups and Turkish coffee cups. We all know that we cannot drink these two types of coffee with a cup.
Yes, they may look alike in size and shape, but they are actually different from each other. To drink espresso, we need a 60-90 ml volume cup. The material of the cup is porcelain and the cup walls are thick because the porcelain allows heat to spread evenly throughout the cup. The Turkish coffee cup should have a volume of 60-120 ml. Like the espresso cup, the Turkish coffee cup should be porcelain, but the walls of the Turkish coffee cup should be thin because in thin-walled cups the grounds sink more easily.
When is the best time to drink Turkish Coffee?
In Turkish, the first meal of the day is called kahvaltı which is the integrated form of ‘kahve’ and ‘altı’ words. Kahve means that coffee in Turkish and altı means that before breakfast. It means that Turkish people culturally prefer to drink Turkish coffee after breakfast. But there is no essential period of time for drinking coffee. When you are reading a book, after the meal or breakfast, when you have a guest, when you meet your child’s boy/girlfriend’s family or when you want to look fortune-telling into Turkish coffee cups.
Some idioms in Literature about Turkish Coffee
There are some idioms about the Turkish coffee culture that are very common among Turkish people.
- ‘A cup of Turkish coffee becomes sake for 40 years.’
- ‘Heart wants neither coffee nor coffeehouse, the heart wants to talk, the rest are excuses.’
- ‘Coffee must be black as hell, strong as death, sweet as love…’
Turkish Coffee Recipe - How to make Turkish Coffee at home?
The ingredients of Turkish Coffee - What is needed to make Turkish coffee at home?
In Turkey, most delightful conversations are accompanied by Turkish coffee, traditionally.
Let's learn how to make a foamy Turkish coffee at home.
Requirements to cook Turkish Coffee
- Cezve -a special pot usually made of copper
- Fincan -Turkish coffee cup(called as Fincan)
- Cold water
- Turkish Coffee
- Sugar -if prefer
- Little-sugar 1/4 tsp per cup
- Medium-sugar 1/2 tsp per cup
- Well-sugared 1 tsp per cup
Steps to cook Turkish Coffee
- Put 1 Turkish coffee cup of cold drinking water for each cup.
- Then add 2 teaspoons Turkish coffee and sugar-if prefer- to the cezve per cup.
- Place cezve onto the smallest ring on the lowest heat and stir the coffee until well combined and melted.
- Increase heat to middle and from this point do not mix again. Watch it until coffee foam starts to appear and reach on the top of the cezve.
- Before start boiling, reduce the heat at the minimum level and share coffee foam in the cups by using teaspoons.
- Boil the coffee in the coffee pot once again and then share it in the cups.
It is a tradition to serve your coffee with a glass of water and a dessert.
Please don't forget the fortune-telling after drinking your Turkish coffee :)
Tips for making Turkish Coffee foamy (more foam)
- The first rule of making foamy and delicious Turkish coffee is to use fresh coffee. If you can, use freshly ground coffee, otherwise choose freshly unpacked coffee.
- The water you use while making Turkish coffee is as important as your coffee. You will get better results than coffee with chlorine-free drinking water. It is also important that your water is cold. Turkish coffee made with cold water foams better.
- The coffee-water ratio is also very important. For 1 cup of coffee, you should put 2 teaspoons of Turkish coffee in the coffee pot. Measuring the water of the coffee with a cup prevents you from making mistakes. However, do not fill the cups to the brim while adding the water; Remember that when the coffee is brewed, the grounds and foam will fill part of your cup. Adjust the sugar ratio according to preference. However, in general, no sugar is added to plain coffee, half sugar is added to low sugar coffee, 1 sugar for medium sugar coffee, and 2 cubes of sugar for coffee with sugar.
- The other rule of a delicious Turkish coffee is to mix it well. After adding the coffee, water, and sugar according to your preference to the coffee pot, mix for 30 seconds and let it homogenize thoroughly. Remember, once you put the coffee on the fire, you won't mix it again.
- Another point you should pay attention to is to cook your Turkish coffee on low heat. Because high fire causes the coffee to rise and overflow immediately.
- While dividing the foam and coffee into the cups, you should be careful to pour it slowly and from the edge of the cup. Coffee pouring into the center of the cup suddenly causes the foam to dissipate.
How to serve Turkish Coffee - What is the best way to serve Turkish Coffee
The best Turkish coffee serving style includes a glass of water and Turkish delight. Turkish delight is one of the most preferred treats in addition to Turkish coffee. Which type of Turkish delight is preferred depends entirely on your preference. However, in our opinion, double roasted Turkish delight and rose-flavored Turkish delight are the best delight types to go with Turkish coffee.
Why does Turkish coffee be served with a little glass of water?
The rumors date back to the Ottoman times. The coffee, which came to our lands during the Ottoman Empire period, is frequently consumed first in coffee houses and then in homes.
At this time, when guests came to the house, the host offered a glass of water along with a cup of Turkish coffee. If the guest drinks the water before the coffee, this indicates that he is hungry and the host immediately starts to prepare the table. But if he drinks the water after the coffee is over, he points out that he is full and that he is just for sweet talk. In short, the guest did not say "I am hungry", but expressed his intention by drinking coffee.
Another rumor comes from the Ottoman palace. In order to understand whether the meals that the sultan would eat were poisonous, the officials had to taste Turkish coffee beforehand. They did not taste Turkish coffee only when it was made and served in a single pot because it had a taste worthy of the sultan's mouth. Therefore, a new method was developed in the palace. Before drinking the coffee, the sultan dipped his finger first in the coffee and then in the water. From the distribution of coffee in water, it could be understood whether the coffee was poisoned or not. Only after that, the sultan could drink his foamy Turkish coffee with peace of mind.
Apart from the rumors, the situation has a scientific dimension. Because there is a high amount of oxalate in coffee. Oxalate causes kidney stone formation. It is known that 75% of kidney stones are made up of oxalate. The water drunk with the coffee helps to remove oxalate from the kidneys. Therefore, drinking water with Turkish coffee is very important for our health.
Another reason is all about our taste textures. A few sips of water drunk before the coffee cleans the inside of the mouth, cleansing the other flavors and thus the taste of the coffee can be taken in a purer way. As you can imagine, drinking water over the coffee to lighten the taste of the bitter coffee and to clear the mouth from the grounds.
We don't know what reason you believe, but we say don't neglect your water while drinking your foamy Turkish coffee.
How to Buy Turkish Coffee Online
Important steps to Buy Turkish Coffee Online - Order Turkish Cofee
- It is really important to be careful about shipping methods.
- Turkish coffee must be shipped with proper packaging.
- Shipping must be fast and directly from Istanbul.
- You must buy Turkish coffee online from a reliable seller.
Buy Turkish Coffee from TurkishTaste.com
- We are shipped with DHL in the most proper packaging method for each product.
- We send Turkish coffee in the vacuuming packages, airtight and impact resistant boxes.
- We send 100% original, fresh, delightful products which are sended directly from Istanbul.
- We have many product ranges on Turkish coffee both brand and diversity.
- We are always ready to improve our website on what our customers need.
- We have reliable payment systems.
Types of Turkish coffee – Which flavors are the best with Turkish coffee?
Other then classical Turkish coffee, Turkey, renowned for their different flavors and forms in different regions are grinding Turkish coffee varieties.
- Menengiç coffee is made from the fruits of the plant called menengiç, which grows especially in Siirt and Mardin. The fruits, which turn from red to green as they ripen, are picked and dried, then roasted, and soft turpentine brown appears.
- Dibek coffee comes from the way it is milled. It is prepared by pounding coffee beans and some aromatic herbs with mortar, containing differences from traditional Turkish coffee. Turkish coffee is dark in color. However, the color of mortar coffee is lighter than Turkish coffee. It looks and tastes like coffee with milk. Dibek coffee is slightly more viscous and coarse-grained. Another feature that distinguishes Dibek coffee from Turkish coffee is the cooking method. Turkish coffee is cooked with cold water in a pot and stove. However, dibek coffee is originally cooked on the fire and hot water is added, not cold water. Turkish coffee, goat horn, turpentine, cocoa, zahter (mountain thyme), coffee cream, sahlep are included in the dibek coffee.
- Mastic Gum Turkish Coffee is a flavored variety in which the scent of coffee meets the scent of mastic gum. As you know, mastic gum is a flavor that is obtained by drying the resin in the body of the mastic tree under the sun and its usage area is quite wide. Turkish coffee is undoubtedly one of the places that it suits best.
- Mırra is native to Southeastern Anatolia. It is made by brewing classic Turkish coffee beans several times in special coffee jars. A few sips of coffee in cupless cups is very hard and bitter. The name mırra comes from the root "murr" which means "pain" in Arabic.
- Tatar Coffee, Another very important difference of Tatar coffee, which is made by putting two or three teaspoons of cream on Turkish coffee, is its presentation. This coffee is definitely served before a meal and in a cup called "Tostakay", which is larger than coffee cups.
- Süvari coffee is drunk in the Aegean Region, but it is also preferred in Adana and Mersin. Roasted coffee served in thin waist tea glasses is very strong.
- Flirty Coffee, Flirty coffee, one of the coffees unique to Manisa, is enough to fulfill the joy of the person with only its appearance. Flirty coffee with ground almonds on top of the foam is served with a dessert spoon. The reason why the almonds do not settle to the bottom is the double roasted coffee beans.
Decaf Turkish Coffee, Caffeine-Free Turkish Coffee
Coffees have a stimulating effect due to the caffeine they contain. Since caffeine, which is a stimulant, affects the nerves, it can have many different effects on people. Caffeine can cause heart rhythm disturbances, insomnia and nervous state effects in some people. Here, some people prefer decaffeinated coffee because they experience these effects excessively. Decaffeinated Turkish coffee is a type of coffee that does not contain caffeine. In fact, it is not much different from other Turkish coffees. It just does not contain caffeine, and thus does not show the side effects of caffeinated Turkish coffee.
What is the best sugar amount in Turkish coffee?
It is totally up to your taste. Also, if you diabetic or you have another intolerance to sugar, you can prefer non-sugar Turkish coffee. On the other side, if you love sugar, you can put one or two teaspoon sugar into your Turkish coffee before cooking.
How to keep Turkish coffee for a long shelf life after ordering
Turkish coffee can spoil quickly if it is not stored correctly. Therefore, we will give some tips to keep your coffee fresh for a long time.
First of all, store your Turkish coffee in an airtight glass jar. Make sure that there is no other odor in the jar.
Also, be careful not to leave a measuring spoon in the jar in which you store Turkish coffee. The spoon and the coffee can interact, causing the coffee to spoil.
Do not store the Turkish coffee in a humid place, fridge, or hot environment. It is recommended to keep it at room temperature in a closed cupboard.
How many days are Shelf life for Turkish coffee?
If you store the Turkish coffee correctly, it can keep its freshness for 2 weeks after opening the package. After two weeks, you can still drink your coffee, but it can be a bit less aromatic according to the first time.